Horticulture

Fruit and Vegetable Market

Vertical Garden

Horticulture produce and health

Horticulture is the science, technology and business involved in intensive plant cultivation for human use. It is practiced from the individual level in a garden up to the activities of a multinational corporation. It is very diverse in its activities, incorporating plants for food (fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, culinary herbs) and non-food crops (flowers, trees and shrubs, turf-grass, hops, grapes, medicinal herbs). It also includes related services in plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design/construction/maintenance, horticultural therapy, and much more. This range of food, medicinal, environmental, and social products and services are all fundamental to developing and maintaining human health and well-being.[1]

Horticulturists apply the knowledge, skills, and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.

Horticultural scientists focus on the research that underpins horticultural knowledge, skills, technologies, education and commerce. Horticultural science encompasses all of the pure sciences – mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology – as well as related sciences and technologies that underpin horticulture, such as plant pathology, soil science, entomology, weed science, and many other scientific disciplines. It also includes the social sciences, such as education, commerce, marketing, healthcare and therapies that enhance horticulture’s contribution to society.

A gardener is a person that tends to a garden and is therefore a horticulturist. However, not all horticulturists are gardeners.

Contents

[edit] Etymology

The word horticulture is modeled after [4]

[edit] Understanding horticulture

Horticulture is a term that evokes images of plants, gardening, and people working in the horticultural industries.[13]).

It can be concluded that horticulture happens when people are in intimate, intensive contact with plants. It is the interface between people and plants.

[edit] Areas of study

According to some accounts, horticulture involves eight areas of study, which can be grouped into two broad sections – ornamentals and edibles:

  • Arboriculture is the study of, and the selection, planting, care, and removal of, individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.
  • Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure use or amenity use.
  • Floriculture includes the production and marketing of floral crops.
  • Landscape horticulture includes the production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants.
  • vegetables.
  • pome fruits.
  • grapes.
  • winemaking.
  • spoilage of horticultural crops.

Horticulturists can work in industry, government or educational institutions or private collections. They can be cropping systems engineers, wholesale or retail business managers, propagators and tissue culture specialists (fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and turf), crop inspectors, crop production advisers, extension specialists, plant breeders, research scientists, and teachers.

Disciplines which complement horticulture include plant pathology, economics, and business. Some careers in horticultural science require a masters (MS) or doctoral (PhD) degree.

Horticulture is practiced in many gardens, “plant growth centres” and nurseries. Activities in nurseries range from preparing seeds and cuttings to growing fully mature plants. These are often sold or transferred to ornamental gardens or market gardens.

[edit] Anthropology

Horticulture has a very long history.[19] A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are often to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem.

Horticulture primarily differs from agriculture in two ways. First, it generally encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops. Secondly, horticultural cultivations generally include a wide variety of crops, even including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands (growing maize, squash and sunflower) contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, avocado, cacao, ceiba and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans (using cornstalks as supports), squash, pumpkins and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended mainly or exclusively by women.[20]

[edit] Horticulture Organisations

The professional body representing horticulturists in Great Britain and Ireland is the Institute of Horticulture (IOH).[21] Also, the IOH has an international branch for members outside of these islands.

The International Society for Horticultural Science [22] promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science.

The American Society of Horticultural Science [23] promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science in the Americas.

The Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in 1990 as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science and industry.[24]

The New Zealand Horticulture Institute [25]

[edit] Gallery

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Doyle, O., Aldous, D., Barrett-Mold, H., Bijzet, Z., Darnell, R. Martin, B., McEvilly, G. and Stephenson R. 2012 Defining Horticulture, Horticulturist and Horticultural Scientist. Ad Hoc Committee for Global Horticulture Advocacy. Editor: Dr Owen Doyle University College Dublin Ireland. Feb. 2012.
  2. ^ hortus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. “horticulture”. Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=horticulture.
  4. ^ Entry for yard Dictionary.com (presenting information supposedly from Random House Dictionary)
  5. ^ b Doyle and Kelleher 2009 Re-Discovering Horticulture: An Exploration from Plant Production to Social Capital Acta Hort 817. 209 -215.
  6. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/horticulture
  7. ^ c Relf, P.D.1992. Human issues in horticulture. HortTechnology. 2(2): 159-287.
  8. ^ Tukey Sn., H.B. 1962. The role of horticulture in science and society. Keynote address to the XVIth International Horticultural Congress, Brussels.
  9. ^ Bailey, L.H. 1904. Cyclopedia of American Horticulture. MacMillan, N.Y.
  10. ^ Relf, P.D. 1998. Human issues in horticulture. p. 1-17. In: J. Stoneham and T. Kendle. (eds.). Plants and human well-being. The Sensory Trust, Bath, England.
  11. ^ Halfacre, G.R. and Barden, J.A. 1979. Horticulture. McGraw-Hill, N. Y. 722 p.
  12. ^ Janick, J. and Goldman, I.L. 2003. Horticulture, horticultural science, and 100 years of ASHS. HortScience. 38: 883-900
  13. ^ Relf, P.D. and Lohr, V.I. 2003. Human issues in horticulture. HortTechnology. 38(5): 984.
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Fullagar, Richard, Judith Field, Tim Denham, and Carol Lentfer (2006) Early and mid Holocene tool-use and processing of taro (Colocasia esculenta), yam (Dioscorea sp.) and other plants at Kuk Swamp in the higlands of Papua New Guinea Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 595-614
  16. ^ von Hagen, V.W. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of The Americas. Ohio: The World Publishing Company
  17. ^ Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, Janice Thies, Thorsten Schafer, Biqing Liang, James Kinyangi, Eduardo Neves, James Petersen, Flavio Luizao, and Jan Skjemstad, Molecular signature and sources of biochemical recalcitrance of organic carbone in Amazonian Dark Earths, 71 Geochemica et cosmochemica ACTA 2285, 2286 (2007) (“Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils apparently developed between 500 and 9000 years B.P. through intense anthropogenic activities such as biomass-burning and high-intensity nutrient depositions on pre-Columbian Amerindian settlements that transformed the original soils into Fimic Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin.”) (internal citations omitted)
  18. ^ Glaser, Bruno, Johannes Lehmann, and Wolfgang Zech, Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review, 35 Biology and Fertility of Soils 219, 220 (2002) (“These so called Terra Preta do Indio (Terra Preta) characterize the settlements of pre-Columbian Indios. In Terra Preta soils large amounts of black C indicate a high and prolonged input of carbonized organic matter probably due to the production of charcoal in hearths, whereas only low amounts of charcoal are added to soils as a result of forest fires and slash-and-burn techniques.”) (internal citations omitted)
  19. ^ McGee, J.R. and Kruse, M. (1986) Swidden horticulture among the Lacandon Maya [videorecording (29 mins.)]. University of California, Berkeley: Extension Media Center
  20. ^ Thompson, S.I. (1977) Women, Horticulture, and Society in Tropical America. American Anthropologist, N.S., 79: 908-910
  21. ^ IOH
  22. ^ ISHS
  23. ^ ASHS
  24. ^ AuSHS
  25. ^ [2]

[edit] Further reading

  • C.R. Adams, Principles of Horticulture Butterworth-Heinemann; 5th edition (11 Aug 2008), ISBN 0-7506-8694-4

[edit] External links



This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Horticulture, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Powered by WordPress and HQ Premium Themes.